The Unification of Italy (1815-70 was a very important and interesting event in the history of Europe in the 19th century because it was a country that had played a very important political role in the history of Europe in ancient times. played a role and where a very rich ancient civilization of Europe developed, which was called Roman civilization. Not only this, the importance of Italy in the religious and social history of Europe was never diminished because Rome had become the center of the religious work of the Pope.
But Italy lost its importance politically over time and became such a region that in 1815 the European politicians (Metternich) called Italy the Mere Geographical Expression. But we must not forget that Italy had its own internal power, which included historical and social power. No country could oppose the religious and social power of Italy before Napoleon Bonaparte. Therefore, the Unification of Italy has a very interesting account of its history.
Geographical Formation Before Unification of Italy
Political systems stemming from geographical differences
Due to being divided into many parts on the natural basis, this country was divided into many castes and classes. Thus one of the main reasons for political, social, economic and cultural diversity was the mountain ranges and climate of Italy, which politically divided Italy due to geographical reasons. These variations would have been beneficial to the modern nation, but in the nineteenth century it was a conflict zone of many political dominions. In which the Pope, King, Feudal etc. were included.
Contribution of Italy’s Geography
Italy is a country located in the south of Europe. This part of Europe is called the Mediterranean section. It is also considered the southern section of the Naples Mountains. Italy’s relationship with Europe is also only from the north. There is a sea on all sides of Italy. To the east of Italy lies the Adriatic Sea, to the west the Titanean Sea and the Gulf of Geneva. To the south of Italy is the Gulf of Torrente and on the other side is the island of Sicily and between Naples and Sicily lies the Strait of Messina. To the west of Italy is its important territory, Sardinia, which is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Italy has three northern neighbors. France is to the north-west, Switzerland to the north, and Austria to the north-east, bordering on Venetia. Thus Italy is a naturally cut off country and was further complicated into several divisions.
Thus, in 1815 Italy was divided into four political geographical parts, which were as follows:
- monarchical northern Italy
- Italy with foreign administration Po Valley
- papal central Italy
- Southern Italy including Naples and Sicily
Before the unification of Italy, we should know the following things which made an impact:
- French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte’s Impact on Italy
- Vienna system
- barriers to integration
- Economic condition of Italy after 1815
- Status of Monarchy in Italy
- state of the pope
- influence of the elite
- effect of renaissance
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