The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, covering the state of Jharkhand as well as adjoining parts of Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau and the Mahanadi basin lies to the south.
How was it named?
The name Nagpur is probably derived from the Nagavanshis, who ruled in this part of the country. On the outskirts of Chhota Ranchi is the village “Chuita”, which also has the remains of an old fort belonging to the Nagvanshis.
What is the area of Chota Nagpur Plateau ?
It is about 65,000 sq km.
How Chota Nagpur was formed?
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a continental plateau – a wide area of land above normal land. The plateau is formed by the continental uplift of the forces acting in the depths of the earth. The Chota Nagpur Gondwana substrates attest to the ancient origin of the plateau. It is part of the Deccan Plate, which was formed by a collision with the Eurasian continent after beginning a 50 million year journey that broke free from the southern continent during the Cretaceous.
Divisions of Chota Nagpur
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is made up of three phases.
- The highest part is in the western part of the plateau, locally called Pat plateau, above sea level. is the highest point.
- The next part comprises large parts of old Ranchi and Hazaribagh districts and parts of old Palamu district, before which these were divided into smaller administrative units. It has a normal height.
- The lowest part of the plateau is almost at an average level. It includes the old Manbhum and Singhbhum districts. High hills form an important part of this section – the Parasnath Hills up to the height and the Dalma Hills up to the larger plateau is divided into several smaller plateaus or sub plateaus.
The western plateau, which is high above sea level, merges with the plateau of Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. Flat top plateaus, locally known as pats, are characterized by a flat surface and are part of a larger plateau. Examples include Netarhat Pat, Jamira Pat, Khamar Pat, Rudni Pat and others. This region is also known as the Western Ranchi Plateau. It is believed to be composed of Deccan basalt lava.
The Ranchi plateau is the largest part of the Chota Nagpur plateau. The elevation of the plateau surface in this part is average and gradually slopes towards the southeast in the hilly and undulating region of Singhbhum (earlier Singhbhum district or now Kolhan division). The plateau is highly dissected. The Damodar River originates from here and flows through a rift valley. In the north it is separated from the Hazaribagh plateau by the Damodar Trench.
There are several springs on the edge of the Ranchi plateau where the rivers coming from above the plateau surface descend through the precipitous slopes of the plateau and enter the region of significantly lower elevation. The northern Karo river has formed the high Ferrughagh Falls on the southern edge of the Ranchi plateau. Such falls are called Scarp Falls.
Hundru Falls (75 m) on Subarnarekha river near Ranchi, Dasam Falls (39.62 m) on Kanchi river east of Ranchi, Sadani Falls (60 m) on Sankh river (Ranchi plateau) are examples of scarp falls. Sometimes waterfalls of different dimensions are formed when tributaries join the master stream from a great height and form hanging valleys. At Rajrappa (10 m), the Bhera river coming from the Ranchi plateau hangs over the Damodar river at the point of its confluence. Jonha Falls (25.9 m) is another example of this category of falls.
The Hazaribagh plateau is often divided into two parts – the high plateau and the low plateau.
The higher plateau here is called the Hazaribagh plateau and the lower plateau is called the Koderma plateau. The Hazaribagh plateau, on which the city of Hazaribagh is built, is approximately east to west and north to south with an average elevation.
The north-eastern and southern parts are mostly abrupt but in the west it gradually narrows in the neighborhood of Simaria and Jabra, where it turns south and joins the Ranchi plateau through the Tori pargana. . It is separated from Ranchi Plateau by the Damodar Trough.
The western part of the Hazaribagh plateau forms a wide watershed between the Damodar drainage in the south and the Lilajan and Mohana rivers in the north. The highest hills of this region are called by the names of Kasiatu, Hesatu and Hudu villages. There is a long project going southwards till the Damodar river where it ends at Aswa mountain.
In the south-eastern corner of the plateau is the Jilinga Hill. The Mahabar Jarimo et and Barsot stand isolated to the east and are the most prominent features at Sendreli and Mahuda on the north-west edge of the plateau. Isolated on a plateau, the Hazaribagh city neighborhood consists of four hills, the highest of which rise up to Chandawar.
In the south it goes almost completely in the foothills of Bokaro river below Jilinga Hill. Viewed from the north, the edge of this plateau gives the appearance of a series of hills, at the foot of which runs the Grand Trunk Road (on the Koderma plateau) and the NH 2 (the new NH19).
The Koderma plateau is also known as the Hazaribagh low plateau or the Chauparan-Koderma-Girighi sub-plateau.
The northern part of the Koderma plateau rising above the plains of Bihar appears to be a range of hills but is actually the edge of a plateau above the level of the Gaya plain. To the east this northern bank forms a well-defined watershed between the heads of the Gaya tributaries and the Barakar River, which crosses Koderma and Giridih districts in the east.
The slope of this plateau towards the east is uniform and gentle, which, in the south-east, goes into the Santhal Pargana and gradually disappears in the low plains of Bengal. The western boundary of the plateau is formed by the deep bed of the Lilajan River. The southern boundary faces the high plateau, as far as its eastern end, where for some distance a low and distinct watershed runs east to west.
The Damodar Basin forms a trough between the Ranchi and Hazaribagh plateaus, resulting in heavy fractures on their present flanks, causing the land to sink to great depths and incidentally protected from denudation by the Karanpura, Ramgarh and Bokaro coalfields. Is.
The northern boundary of the Damodar Valley stands up to the southeast corner of the Hazaribagh plateau. Damodar to the south of the trough remains close to the edge of the Ranchi plateau until it passes through Ramgarh, after which it turns north-east to form a broad and flat valley on the right hand side, on which the Subarnarekha river flows. is leaving.
The Palamu Division is generally situated at a lower altitude than the surrounding areas of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. In the east the Ranchi plateau enters the division and the southern part of the division merges into the Pat region. To the west are the Surguja Highlands of Chhattisgarh and the Sonbhadra districts of Uttar Pradesh.
The Son river touches the north-western corner of the mandal and is a series of parallel ranges of hills to the east and west through which the Koel river passes. The hills are the highest in the south and the picturesque and isolated cup-like Chhechari valley is surrounded by high hills on all sides. The Lodh Falls falls from the height of these hills, making it the highest waterfall in the Chota Nagpur Plateau. The Netarhat and Pakripat plateaus are physically part of the Pat region.
In the lowest phase of the Chota Nagpur plateau, the Manbhum region covers parts of present-day Purulia district in West Bengal and Dhanbad district and Bokaro district in Jharkhand and the Singhbhum region broadly covers the Kolhan division of Jharkhand.
The Manbhum region has an almost normal elevation and consists of undulating land with scattered hills – the prominent ones being the Baghmundi and Ajodhya ranges, the hills around Panchkot and Jhalda. The adjoining Bankura district of West Bengal stands as “the connecting link between the Bengal plains in the east and the Chota Nagpur plateau in the west”. The same can be said about Asansol and Durgapur subdivisions of Bardhaman district.
The Singhbhum region has a very high mountainous and broken area. The entire western part is a set of mountain ranges moving towards the southwest. Jamshedpur is situated on an open plateau above sea level, with a high plateau to its south. The eastern part is mostly mountainous, although it flattens into an alluvial plain near the borders of West Bengal. In Singhbhum region, there are hills alternating with valleys, steep hills, deep forest on the mountain.